The Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region’s geographic position - and its young and educated population and abundant natural resources - have given it immense strategic importance. However, despite the strong resource base and an economic resilience that helped it weather the global financial crisis, the vulnerability of the countries in the MENA region remains high. The energy intensity ratio of energy use to GDP in the MENA region is 60% more than that of the OECD countries and is 40% higher than the world average (ESMAP, 2009). If the focus were only on energy efficiency improvements, the MENA region countries could obtain 1% improvement in GDP by achieving 20-50% energy savings and an additional 2% increase in GDP if energy subsidies, which are currently 7.1% of GDP, were reduced or eliminated (ESMAP, 2009). Industry is the major energy-consuming sector in the MENA region, accounting for about 45% of total energy consumption (AFED, 2009). In Egypt, the industrial sector is the leading energy consuming sector, with annual usage of 28.12 MTOE corresponding to 37% of the total consumption of 76 MTOE in 2012/13 (Abu Bakr, 2013). As Egypt’s leaders seek to expand the industrial sector and to modernize its economy, the most pressing challenges are energy, food and water security.